Studying in President University will deal with the global things. The availability of international students makes us live in international environment. However, it is still in Indonesia and the education system also is under government. That is why the students should take a citizenship subject. In this subject, the students will be given knowledge more about citizen’s things. Start from the principles of Pancasila that Indonesia has, the constitutional, rules and regulations, also the duties and rights as citizen.
As the final project of citizenship subject, the students have to make a presentation in a group with several topics about citizenship. In other hand, every student also has to make an individual paper as the report of presentation.
In this paper, the writer would like to explore about “Domestic Violence” that has been presented in the class with a group. The reason in choosing topic for “Domestic Violence” is because a group saw that Indonesia has a big problem with it. Not only happened in this country, there are so many issues about domestic violence in other countries too. Those things show people as good citizen to be aware and care of other people who also have same rights and obligations as citizen.
Furthermore, the writer will do a review for “Domestic Violence” presentation that has been done before. The reader will know more about definition, types and examples, causes, effects, and also solutions of domestic violence as general.
Domestic violence is also known as intimate partner violence or domestic abuse which is a pattern of behaviors where one partner tries to maintain control of the other through the use of physical force, intimidation and threats. It could be differentiate into 5 types or kinds of domestic violence.
Physical - If someone is hurting you, or threatening to hurt you, a loved one or a pet, then you will need to take some action. For instance, kicking, punching, shoving, slapping, pushing, burning, biting, or choking.
Emotional – This form of violence is often unrecognized and can be very hurtful. For example, excessive jealousy, crazy making, mind games, isolation from friends and family, making the victim feel worthless and threats.
Economic - Having money and being able to make decisions about it, is one means of being independent. If someone is controlling your money, keeping you financially dependent, or making you ask for money unreasonably, then this is a form of violence.
Social – Social violence occurs in relationships that often include other forms of violence. If someone is insulting you or teasing you in front of other people, keeping you isolated from family and friends, controlling what you do and where you go, then they are being violent and you may need to take some action.
Spiritual – This type of violence involves a situation where you are not allowed to have your own opinions about religion, cultural beliefs, and values, or your spirituality is manipulated to keep you feeling powerless. Attacking the victim’s spiritual or religious beliefs or misquoting scripture to justify abuse.
There are many different theories as to the causes of domestic violence. These include psychological theories that consider personality traits and mental characteristics of the perpetrator, as well as social theories which consider external factors in the perpetrator’s environment, such as family structure, stress, social learning. As with many phenomena regarding human experience, no single approach appears to cover all cases.
Psychological – Focus on personality traits and mental characteristics of the offender. Personality traits include sudden bursts of anger, poor impulse control, and poor self-esteem. Various theories suggest that psychopathology and other personality disorders are factors, and that abuse experienced as a child leads some people to be more violent as adults.
Jealousy – Many cases of domestic violence against women occur due to jealousy when one partner is either suspected of being unfaithful or is planning to leave the relationship.
Behavioral – focus on the use of functional assessment with the goal of reducing episodes of violence to zero rates. Often by identifying the antecedents and consequences of violent action, the abusers can be taught self control.
Social Stress – Stress may be increased when a person is living in a family situation, with increased pressures. Social stresses, due to inadequate finances or other such problems in a family may further increase tensions.
Power and Control – In abusive relationships, violence is posited to arise out of a need for power and control of one partner over the other. An abuser will use various tactics of abuse (e.g., physical, verbal, emotional, sexual or financial) in order to establish and maintain control over the partner.
Domestic Violence impacts on many people in all kinds of ways. It is not only the victim, but the whole community who experiences the effects of Domestic Violence. It will bring effect physically even emotionally. People with domestic violence may lose the job and families.
Chronic Pain & Physical Disability - Some chronic health conditions that have been linked to victims of domestic violence are arthritis, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic pain, pelvic pain, ulcers, and migraines. Among victims who are still living with their perpetrators high amounts of stress, fear, and anxiety are commonly reported.
Emotional problems – trauma, shy, fearful, feel guilty, stress, depression, anti-social, drug and alcohol abusers, depression is also common, as victims are made to feel guilty for ‘provoking’ the abuse and are frequently subjected to intense criticism. It is reported that 60% of victims meet the diagnostic criteria for depression, either during or after termination of the relationship, and have a greatly increased risk of suicide.
Statistics on domestic violence are chilling. In the US, 31,260 women were murdered by an intimate between 1976 and 1996, according to aardcarc.org, an abuse, rape and domestic violence aid and resource collection’s website.
These numbers are substantially higher than deaths in a war zone. In the six years, from March 2003 to December 2009 just 4,282 American soldiers were killed in war torn Iraq according to the globalsecurity.org. In 1991 alone, more than 6,000 women died from domestic violence in the US according to a report from its Department of Health and Human Services.
Domestic violence is a world war zone. In Jakarta, one woman dies every month at the hands of her husband and a further 657 women reported abuse last year, according to the Legal Aid Institute of the Indonesian Women’s Association for Justice that trains police to give victims support.
Violence within families has no borders. The beating of mainly wives and girlfriends happens in every country around the world. Domestic violence pays no heed to wealth or status, race or religion; it is almost as common among the rich as among the poor, in the world’s biggest country and on the tiniest of islands.
From a quoted report in newspaper, it shows that domestic violence is a problem in everywhere. Year by year, the number of domestic violence cases is increasing. My group tried to find out why this is happened and how it will bring any impacts in society life even the victims itself. It is just like I wrote before in previous chapter about theoretical frameworks which gave information about definition of domestic violence, causes, and also effects.
In fact, usually it happens in women and children. They are easily become victim because their psychological which shows a low self-esteem and also they do not have enough power to control surrounding even themselves. As the impact or effect of domestic violence, they are as the victim could get any physical diseases because the abuser hit or slap, even kick them. In the other hand, they will have a big trauma in their life. It is very influencing from emotional side. The victims tend to be afraid to speak up and meet people. They are under pressured. It is possible they could do suicide because of depression. This case is not rare again.
When the group did a presentation, there were several questions about domestic violence. One of them asked about the way to overcome this problem. We explain as suggestion that could be considered as solution as well. In other hand, the class also talked from the suspect or abuser itself. Because they thought that it is important thing to help the suspect or abuser too. Perhaps, people did a violence will have purpose either not. But sometimes, these people have something wrong with the psychological and emotional.
The solution is that we learn about Domestic Violence, recognize it when it happens, and help the victim find a safe way out with a Safety Plan.
Increase self-esteem – While there are situations in which the partner exploits low self-esteem, there are many other situations in which the abuse is an attempt to break the woman’s high or moderate self-esteem in order to bludgeon her into subservience. Along with these situations, there are many others in which the abuse has nothing to do with self-esteem at all and is a result of – the partner hating or thinking badly about the person, the partner hating the other gender, or the partner believing that abuse is the way to go (is ordered by God, is part of loyalty to one’s gender, is traditional, is “family values,” and further on along the same line). Ascribing all of these situations to low self-esteem when low self-esteem is a culprit in only a fraction of these situations completely misdiagnoses the problem and prevents real solutions from being achieved.
Contact a shelter – They are in dire need of help. Volunteer your time, as much or as little as you can manage. Donate to food drives and clothing drives. Donate money if you can spare it to enhance programs at shelters designed to help battered women get back on their feet. In this situation, you have to involve with community. There are so many communities which can help you to go out from this problem. However, if it is already including criminality, you have to report what had been happened to the police and court. Everyone will have own rights and it should be protected by laws.
Pancasila – it strongly emphasizes on the points of similarities of values and social practices that have been lengthy existed inherently in our society since years. Throughout historical development, these common social values and practices have evolved and been institutionalized as part of our daily life for most part of pre-Indonesian society.
The second principle is humanity. Formally it was labeled as “just and civilized humanity”. This principle emphasis that living cultural values of multi ethnic of Indonesian society should be appreciated, accepted, then to be promoted based on humanity principle. That is why Indonesia was formed not for person per person, or for ethnic group or certain religion, but formed as nation state where multicultural becomes our daily life. Our ancestor has formulated very well this principle in the motto: “Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, unity in diversity”.
After the group did a presentation and a writer as the one of its member also do a review in this final report for citizenship subject, we know that Indonesia is a rich country with any natural resources. Besides that, the number of population is very high that bring Indonesia to not really good in quality of human resources itself. People less educated and tolerated to face differences in diversity. One of the major problems that exist until now and it is not only happened in here is domestic violence.
The points that suppose to be the causes of domestic violence are psychological, jealousy, behavioral, social stress, power, and control. Those things will be the reason from the doers or abusers or suspects who do violence. In other hand, there will be several effects that happen to victims, people who get the violence. They tend to have chronic pain or physical disability because of hitting, kicking, etc. The victims also will have problem with emotional which become afraid to speak up, meet people, even feeling lonely, perhaps stress and depression that could bring them to do suicide.
Moreover, as a good citizen who is still sit in high education, we may help to solve this problem. At least, we can reduce the number of domestic violence. That is why we discuss this case in citizenship class and meet up with any suggestion to realize become solution. For instance, increase self-esteem, contact the shelter, and also implanting Pancasila.
So, as the conclusion of this paper, the writer may see as the most important is from every individual. Our country already has 5 principles as life guidance and in this case, we have to pay more attention for second principle which is about humanity. We have to know and understand that we live together. Although we have many differences, it is diversity that we have to keep to get a peace and happiness in living together as nation.
Internet sources retrieved of November 23, 2012
Internet sources retrieved on October 23, 2012
http://www-src.nowpublic.com/effective solution to domestic violence/USA